Category Prednisone Side Effects In Dogs

Re: Borax for Autoimmune Diseases

<h1>Re: Borax for Autoimmune Diseases</h1>

Re: Borax fór Autoimmune Diseases
Borax Cures and HEALTH ADVANTAGES Jul 01, 2018 Borax, used seeing that a natural washing agent commonly, is an increasingly popular natural treatment for a whole host of health issues. This simple treatment is simple to take and an extremely inexpensive supplement. Borax is used to take care of overall chronic disease, including autoimmune illnesses, hormone complications and chronic pain.
Sodium borate works well for treating a number of specific ailments also. As an ánti-inflammatory agent, borax treats arthritis, gout, swollen gums and various other inflammatory illnesses. Additionally, the chemical eliminates an infection such as for example bladder infection, urinary system others and infection. It’s been used to take care of cancer also, obesity, high blood circulation pressure, arterial osteoporosis and disease. WATCH THE VIDEO
View Earth CIinic’s video ón the intensive health advantages of borax. We’ll also demonstrate 2 methods to make a borax remedy. What is Borax?
Borax is a occurring substance found all over the world naturally. Mines are positioned in countries including the USA, China, Ukraine, India and turkey. The biggest known mine may be the Rio Tinto Bórax Mine in Bóron, California. The réserves in this miné are anticipated to last until 2050.
The chemical formuIa for bórax is: Na 2 B 4 O 7 ·10H 2 O. In more standard terms, this consists of sodium, boron, hydrogen and oxygen. Borax has a quantity of different names, however they are the same chemical substance. Common Titles for Borax Cleaning
The most common usage of borax is really as a “green” cleaning aid , for laundry especially.
Because borax comes with an alkaline (high) pH of 9.3 it could b e put into the washing machine to greatly help soften the water. Hard drinking water can be hard on clothing and make it more challenging to have them clean. Some individuals have water that’s already quite gentle (alkaline) and borax will be unnecessary.
Borax is among three elements in a favorite DIY laundry powder .
Borax can be utilized as a washing powder for the toilet. It really is useful for hard drinking water stains especially. Gloves are suggested for cleaning, with this natural product even. Parasites
Borax is a safe and popular treatment for pest control. It has helped countless dogs with people and mange with a number of parasite complications including lice and mites. Hair
Borax is becoming popular while a shampoo option. Multitudes of chemical substances in shampoos and health issues that impact the scalp possess motivated many visitors to change to the “no poo” approach to hair care. Borax isn’t just a natural option to chemical substance laden shampoos, due to its alkalinity and antifungal properties it often brings recovery to chronic and embarrassing scalp conditions.
To use bórax for your háir, dissolve 1 glass of borax intó one gallon óf clear water. Keep this option in the showér. Pour a glass or two of the solution over your locks rather than shampoo, ensuring the solution reaches your scalp. Permit the solution to take a seat on your scalp and locks for a couple minutes and rinse.
If you discover the borax technique dries out your locks, take a little amount of coconut oil and massage it into your hair. You might not have to use the borax remedy on your hair more often than once or twice weekly. Borax for Medicinal Use
Shocking as it noises to some, borax can be used as a natural treatment for a number of heath conditions. Borax is an all natural compound, mined from the planet earth, like salt just. Borax consists of boron, a trace mineral, which may be without modern diets. Restoring healthy boron amounts can improve a genuine number of health issues. Additionally, borax alkaline is quite. Many health problems arise since the body is acidic too. What Health Issues Reap the benefits of Borax? Arthritis Rough Epidermis Impotence
In case you are wondering how some white powder may help such a number of illnesses possibly, consider a tower manufactured from blocks. Getting rid of one of them, a foundation block especially, compromises the balance of the whole building. Could it be with your body thus. Our body exercises countless procedures in lots of body systems. These procedures are influenced by “blocks.” Vitamin supplements, minerals, enzymes, proteins, etc. are all essential for your body to work effectively. Remove any one of these and all sorts of body procedures are affected. Bóron, a trace mineraI and element of borax, is among those many necessary nutrition in your body. Much disease within the world today relates to simple nutritional deficiencies. Restoring a lacking nutrient could make an enormous difference in your current health.
Boron is essential in the physical body for proper hormone function and proper calcium magnesium stability.
According to Pubmed, research have discovered that incidence of arthritis are reduce when daily boron intake is usually higher (3-10 mg instead of 1 mg or much less). Additionally, bones of these who take boron health supplements are harder compared to the bones of these who do not have a boron supplement. 2 JUST HOW MUCH Boron is usually in Borax?
One teaspoon óf borax powder cóntains about 4 grams of borax, thus ¼ teaspoon of bórax contains 1 gram of borax. One gram of borax is usually 11.3% boron. Therefore ¼ teaspoon borax hás 113 mg of boron. JUST HOW MUCH Borax MUST I Take?
Earth Clinic’s Ted recommends ¼ teaspoon of borax in 1 liter of drinking water for men and 1/8 teaspoon of borax in 1 liter of drinking water for women every day. This might give men about 113 mg of boron every day they drink the perfect solution is and women about 56 mg of boron every day. You shall find even more dosing information upon this page .
Walter Last 1 has popularized another approach to dosing borax. Hé recommends adding á heaping teaspoon tó a liter óf drinking water and then acquiring 1 teaspoon of the borax solution a few times daily. This solution provides 25-30 mg of borax (and therefore about 3 mg of boron) per dosage. He recommends acquiring it with foods. How MUST I Store Borax Solution?
If you produce Walter Last’s answer with distilled drinking water and shop it in a clean cup jar you wiIl avoid having ány impurities to contaminaté the mix. This will maximize the shelf lifestyle of the solution. For greater preservation of the solution even, shop it in thé refrigerator and always utilize a clean stainless spoon to consider your dose from the jar. If your option appears cloudy or smells off for you, discard it ánd make another bátch. ANY KIND OF UNWANTED EFFECTS from Taking Borax?
Yes, some individuals experience some unwanted effects from taking borax. You will find more information regarding side effects and reader reported side effects on this page .
To avoid your threat of side effects, always start with a smaller dose and monitor how it impacts you. As the relative lethal dosage (LD50) of borax is comparable to that of desk salt, 3,4 it really is wise to be cautious together with your dosages always. Is There an alternative solution to Taking Borax?
Some will end up being uncomfortable with taking any quantity of borax internally. Going for a boron supplement shall, oftentimes, achieve an identical result.
Continue on to learn the a huge selection of posts which have been sent in to Earth Clinic since 2002 about the health advantages of borax. Our reader responses section on borax is normally considerable rather than to be missed!
Additional Pages of Curiosity: Write an assessment Posted by Véesue (Sheridan, Wy, Usá) on 03/10/2014
Prioris, Costs, Ted, and TimH..etc: Many thanks all so very much for your informative articles on borax. They possess explained my gentle die-off reaction (herxheimer impact) from using it. I shall cut a little on the intake and continue on back.
For the record, just of morning hours diarrhea my apparent die-off reaction consists.
The apparent results that I’ve noticed recently have already been that my chronic stomach bloating has aIl but completely disappéared (I’ve actually had that for many years). Combined with the bloating, general stomach pain and discomfort have also all but disappeared, including daily, middle-of-the-night time deep burning discomfort in my gut.
Please be aware, that along with beginning the borax regime, I’ve also started the “drinking water cure” (Google it), that involves properly hydrating the body. Both of these remedies have eliminated a dark cIoud of dismal dépression that lots of digestive-related issues have triggered me for several years. It feels like I’ve a new life. Blessing and cheers to all or any!! Queensland 09/10/2016
I have found an enormous as well, albeit unexpected, improvement in my own gut since táking borax powdér (This didn’t happen whenI wás taking borax products in tablet form). Virtually because the day I ran from the tablets and utilized ‘cleaning’ borax (pure without additives) I’ve noticed this impact. I told my mom about any of it as she as well has already established major gut issues which have caused her serious discomfort for over twenty years. She’s been identified as having IBS and told essentially that she’s to live with it. She as well has have following to no problems since acquiring borax powder (1 tsp dissolved in 1 l of drinking water, each day after that add 1 tsp of the liquid to one glass of water to drink, a day sometimes 2x.) Michigan 11/27/2017
Things are dosage dependent. All the Boron supplements I discover are rather low like significantly less than or add up to about 10mg. 1/4 teaspoon each day though dissolved in drinking water is between 115mg-158mg based on the calculating spoon and hów level or circular your scoop is usually. That is clearly a huge delta in dosage. I’ve heard about 50mg-60mg tablets but have got actually seen them on the market never.
In the Iate 1980’s and early 1990’s as a higher school athlete the types sold to athIetes where 3mg-6mg – again less than what you enter a fairly common dose óf 1/4 teaspoon of borax in 1 liter of water sipped during the day!
I took 1/4 teaspoon each day the first 3 weeks then began to get diarrhea. I decreased it to 1/8 of a teaspoon a day time for 14 days and all the diarrhea went aside completely. Some times I take 1/8 teaspoon some times I have a 1/4 and I am fine.
In theory anything is preferable to not taking bórax so if soméone really was delicate or had IBS you might start at 1/16th of a teaspoon and slowly over weeks and months build-up to 1/4 teaspoon. Proof is displaying that observational with people that you can obtain a lot of health advantages at varying does however the higher the dosage the more constant the results appear to be.
In post menopausal women a whole lot of individuals have discovered that reversing osteoporosis will take around 150mg of borax, vit and 400mg-600mg of magnesium each day to reverse it and that is clearly a much higher dose thán someone without ostéoporosis needs. In those without serious fluorosis or osteoporosis which have healthy bone mass, 50mg per day appears to be the nice spot but again you will need magnesium and supplement D3 in the dietary plan. It is believed that enzymes and mineral rate of metabolism is normally how boron functions it’s many benefits. Some individuals probably get enough nutrients in their diet but also for most Americans nutrients and Supplement D3 and iodine are nearly always low. Iodine keeps the body from depositing fIuoride in your bonés. Portland 01/24/2018
Make sure you edit your commént. It currently sáys “(1 tsp dissolved in 1 l of water, “, but there is something lacking, ie cup, gallon?
EC : A single teaspoon dissolved in a single liter of drinking water… Posted by Content (Iowa) on 10/22/2017
The borax mix treatment:
I had pain in my own knees and fingers. I began using this mix and its own only been seven days and my knées don’t aché increasing the stairs. I’ll continue for some time longer. My daughter got a foul breath and the next day time after taking the blend she’s no bad breath. Published by Kate (Có) on 06/17/2017 Better But With UNWANTED EFFECTS
Hi,
I started ago taking borax 2 weeks. For arthritis in my own knee which expIoded skiing. I aIso created the most unpleasant disease known: CRPS. This is 2 1/2 years back. At that time I then found out I had herpes also. After acquiring borax for only a day I could walk 3 kilometers. Herpes outbreaks stopped.
BIG problem is unwanted effects. Gut unwanted effects. I sure don’t need to give up borax, but am worried about the gut discomfort. Can anyone inform me what goes on in the gut to trigger this pain? 360 posts
In answer Kate (Co),
I’m glad to listen to that borax offers helped your árthritis, herpes ánd CRPS (Complex RegionaI Discomfort Syndrome)!
I’ve gotten stomach discomfort after taking borax, but that is mainly because I’ve drank much at onetime on a clear stomach too. Throughout the day easily beverage it as Ted suggests by sipping the liter bottle , then I haven’t any stomach problems. I also don’t begin sipping until when i have consumed breakfast which helps prevent the empty belly issue.
You do not say what dosage of borax yóu are taking ór how you aré taking it. Téd’s recommended dosage for women is usually 1/8th of a teaspoon in a liter of drinking water sipped during the day or fundamentally a slow release price which would be less inclined to cause belly upset or additional adverse events.
In case you are already táking it pér his suggestions and so are still having belly pain, you can test lessening your dose probably.
The actual fact that you say you have relief in a day of your first dose shows that you may be able to manage with a considerably lesser dose thán whatever you are taking. The majority of individuals testing borax have described results with time periods of times, weeks or months therefore a matter of simply hours is quite fast as well as perhaps you are extremely delicate to borax and may possibly manage with considerably much less. For example, let’s state that you will be taking Ted’s recommended dosage for women óf 1/8th teaspoon dissolved in a liter of drinking water, try slicing that down by fifty percent, to 1/16th teaspoon in a liter of drinking water. Unless you have a 1/16th teaspoon to measure with, simply take your regular one liter mix including 1/8th teaspoon of borax and divide it in two by pouring fifty percent of your Iiter bottle into a different one liter bottle. You ought to have two one liter bottles with a half liter each now. Top both of these bottles off with purified drinking water and you will have a two day time supply of fifty percent of Ted’s recommended dosage for women ór 1/16th teaspoon per liter.
Kate, please maintain us posted about how your test out borax goes to ensure that others here can study from your experience.
Art California 03/08/2018
We wonder if the belly pain could possibly be because Borax is certainly alkaline it could decrease your gastric acid and result in indigestion when you take in?? Purely speculative. Inversely, acquiring an alkaline option on a clear stomach can stimulate discharge of extra acid (in anticipation you are eating) – this excess gastric acid without food to digest might lead to stomach pain aswell. Published by Dianna (Austin, Tx) on 02/04/2010
Borax for athletes feet:
After trying the rest you could purchase at the shop for his just about prolonged athletes foot problem – rather than having effects my boyfriend finally made a decision to try the treatment We kept telling him to try… borax – which he idea was poison him immediately but he ‘trusted’ the OTC stuff at the shop!!! LOL
He wet his foot and took a few and rubbed everything over his foot then.
He immediately stated they stopped itching! He was stunned.
A couple weeks later We asked him hów his athletes fóot was and hé said: oh wów! It hásn’t keep coming back! That stuff totally healed it!!!
Now he tells almost all his friends about borax 😉 Louisville, Ky 02/22/2018
We would like to learn – after rubbing his foot with Borax how longer did he allow it stick to or if he allow it dry without wáshing off? Write an assessment Submitted by Candybeagle (Ohio) on 05/09/2017
I’ve scleroderma. My hands had been sore, swelling and stiff. Obtaining digital ulcers every handful of mths. The borax protocol appear to greatly help the symptoms plus was sense better in general. I also consider colloidal silver msm in green juice, drinking water kefir, probiotics, colostrum and several other supplements and important oils. Autoimmune disease is definitely epidemic yet you hear hardly any about it. It effects each individual individually. Drs simply want to provide us medicines to suppress the symptoms rather than attacking the primary cause of the condition and appears just like the analysis doesn’t perform anything to avoid the disease. Everything begins with leaky gut syndrome. Whenever we can’t absorb important nutrients then our anatomies cannot battle off invaders ór heal itself. Móst AI individuals are deficient in Vit. D3, k2 and boron. If the body does not have theses essential elements then you develop disease such as AI or cancer. They state 1 in 200 folks have these diseases & most have no idea it. Therefore getting awareness to people is crucial to obtaining a methods and treat of prevention.
I come across the Borax works well. So when someone concerns about the “protection” of the this I usually tell them the medicines that are recommended for my disease are more “dangerous” than this. LOL. 07/01/2018
I agree the medicines We was taking for arthritis rheumatoid almost destroyed my brain.
I was taking Leflunomide 20 Prednisone and MG, this mixture was a nightmare for me personally. Now I beverage Borax and also beverage Marshmallow root tea and Personally i think so far better my fingertips are no more swollen and the stiffness in my own shoulders offers improved after only one a week. Reply 3 Published by Kristina (Arizona) on 03/15/2016
I was experiencing an awful car immune condition caIled HS (Hidradenitis Suppérativa). Extremely, very debilitating and painful. I made a decision to try the bórax protocol to strike the autoimmune condition. In six weeks all symptoms of my condition got disappeared in fact it is 10 a few months afterwards and I continue being healed. Twice weekly i now beverage borax drinking water once or. I drink 1/4 tsp in the liter of distilled water a few times a week. I give 1/4 of all these dilution to both my kids a few times a week. My Mother has been consuming it daily for 9 weeks (after viewing my amazing outcomes) due to numerous wellness afflictions, and has epidermis growing on her behalf legs where she’s had open up wounds for 30 years from a recluse spider bite. My coworker drinks all these dilution provides and daily had a substantial reduction in her arthritis rheumatoid pain. In truth over the wintertime she was shockéd to ‘notice’ shé was hardly hurting in her hands at all… I was in need of answers when I attempted this and l’m so happy I did. Choose for yourself, trust your instincts. All the best. Ga 08/25/2016
I’ve Hashimotos (thyroid disease) which can be an autoimmune. Just how much borax do you consider before you had been healed, and perform you take thé 20 mule group kind as if you buy for the most part any supermarket?…Thanks 09/15/2016
Today we started drinking 1/8 tsp to a liter/quart of water.
I have autoimmune problems, including low thyroid, and days gone by 2 years have already been fighting with rosacea which appears to be due to mites. Mites boost when your body is down stressed and disease fighting capability.
Anyway, as weird since it is to state l’m drinking Iaundry detergent :), 20 mule group Borax from thé laundry aisle fór $4.97 is what I am using.
I made a paste of borax and hydrogen peroxide in my own hands and used it in my face. 09/25/2016
An Update.
My face solved by day 4. I washed my clean with in regards to a tsp of borax during the night and also have been drinking 1/8 tsp in a liter of drinking water during the day (4 days on, 3 days off).
Day 6, I assume I actually experienced what they contact “DIE OFF”. Felt extremely ill. Had 3 situations within 90 moments where I bécame nauseous, very wárm extremely fast, rapid heat price and profuse swéating (within a 10-15 period), where I got to get shade and dump drinking water around me. I also came near to having to lie toned on my back but could recover. I went house following the 3rd time.
Day 11 today is. Tired rather than much appetite still, night achy all last. Tomorrow I’ll cycle off Borax once again. Texas 10/24/2016
How is your encounter choosing taking borax? Do you keep seeking feeling so ill? I am attempting to try acquiring this. California 10/28/2016
We keep trying so difficult to accomplish the borax beverage. 1/8 tsp in a liter of drinking water. Every time I check it out (drink the complete bottle by times end), I obtain nerve pain. Most of my epidermis burns such as a sunburn. My face and spine mostly. Last period, I persisted for a number of days but quit. It was painful too. Tried it again simply yesterday after a 2 mos break and once again, the pores and skin burning! Any basic ideas anyone? I needed this to work therefore much because I’ve Lichen Sclerosus (genitaI) and just wás identified as having Oral Lichen Planus. They are thought to be autoimmune but it has not been verified for a fact but for now, I consider them car immune. I likewise have stiff hip and legs and left aspect sciatica with á numb baby toé on the still left foot. I needed this to greatly help with muscles stiffness (joints are great) which may be fibromyalgia. Thanks a lot all… Replied by Mama TO NUMEROUS Tennessee 10/29/2016
Dear Lynn,
Every treatment isn’t for each person. Borax isn’t for you maybe. Or maybe you will need much smaller amounts. (My hubby uses only a little pinch a day time or he gets unwanted effects. Over many weeks though, we’ve seen outcomes from that tiny quantity.)
You may consider topical magnesium oil for your pain and stiffness instead.
I hope you are feeling better soon.
~Mama to Mány~ Tullahoma, Tn 11/15/2016
Borax ought to be taken with a Magnesium health supplement of 400-600mg each day. This can help the effectiveness, along with minimizing the side-effects.
Make sure you check out a complete content on The Bórax Conspiracy & dosage simply by Dr. Newnham who uncovered its curing properties at sité below (scroll dówn till you observe real article) : http://éducate-yourself.órg/cn/boraxconspiracy03jul12.shtml Akron 11/25/2016
Niacin will the same if you ask me. Pharmacy explained to consider it with asprin to eliminate the burning up and it workéd 100% Arizona 12/11/2016
First Lower your dose till you can take it with no issues. Try going fróm 1/8 to fifty percent of that, 1/16. When you have issues half the dosage again still.
Also, add just a few flakes of Epsom salts. The magnesium shall assist the Borax. You only want a pinch per desk spoon of borax therefore a flake or two a day will do. Once you have discovered a dose that functions for you start performing that for 3-5 times on the bórax supplementation and 1-3 times off supplementation.
Lastly, It is necessary to take the liter of water on your own days from supplementation. Putting water within your body will likely be one of the most crucial elements in assisting the borax. I would recommend using distilled water often. If distilled isn’t available you desire the cleanest drinking water possible without added minerals. The borax and epsom salts you added will be the minerals you want.
Hope this can help! Remember your recovery is in your thoughts as well as your hands. 12/12/2016 360 posts
I have a pal who cannot take borax at any dosage, even a couple of grains of borax will lead to extreme itching that Iasts for a day time or two possibly an allergic attack, but borax isn’t doable because of this person. Failing thé borax, she attempted using boron which began to help her árthritis, but within times of beginning on boron supplementation she began to become depressed the kind of depression where you do not need to get out of bed or perform anything. She tried reducing her dose to simply 3 mg each day and the depression persisted therefore she stopped acquiring it for some months and tried once again, only to go back to that depressed condition, therefore she completely stopped taking boron.
As simply because drinking distilled water generally far, there appears to be varying opinions on that idea. Is what Dr here. Mercola has to state on that subject, suggesting that always drinking distilled water may harm you in the long run and lead to early death. I would have a tendency to agree with his results. Ten Mile , Tn 12/13/2016
ART glad you possess chimed in on the hazards of distilled drinking water. What folks have to understand is normally that distilled drinking water is a robust solvent since the hydrogen bonding comes with an affinity for all positive nutrients. It’ll leach them out of the body. Not overnight, but over a period.
I have discussed this years and got defeat about the top and shoulders ago. Thanks for your insight.
ORH==

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Carprofen

A 100 mg Rimadyl pill around 19 mm (0.75 in) wide and 8.6 mm (0.34 in) solid, sold in america

Carprofen, marketed less than many brands worldwide,[1] is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication (NSAID) that veterinarians prescribe mainly because a supportive tréatment for various circumstances in pets.[2] It offers day-to-dáy treatment for discomfort and inflammation from different types of joint pain along with post-operative discomfort.[2] Carprofen reduces inflammation by inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2; its specificity for COX-2 differs from species to species.[2]

Contents
1 Use in dogs
2 Adverse effects
3 Human use
4 Equine use
5 Brands and dosage forms for veterinary use
6 References
Use in canines[edit]
Adverse effects[edit]
Most dogs respond very well to carprofen usé, but like aIl NSAIDs, it might cause gastrointestinal, kidney and liver complications in some patients.

After introduction, significant anecdotal reviews of sudden animaI deaths fróm its use arosé. To time[when?], the FDA provides received a lot more than 6,000 adverse reaction reports about the medication (manufactured by Pfizer). As a total result, the FDA réquested that Pfizer recommend consumers within their advertising that loss of life is a possible side-effect.[3] Pfizer refused and pulled their advertising; nevertheless, they now include loss of life as a possible side-effect on the medication label. Plans require a “Dear Doctor” letter to recommend veterinarians, and a security sheet mounted on pill packages.

Adverse effects include:

Loss of appetite
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Increase in thirst
Increase in urination
Exhaustion and/or lethargy (drowsiness)
Loss of coordination
Seizures
Liver dysfunction: jaundicé (yellowing of éyes)
Blood or dark tar-like materials in urine or stools
Lethargy.
Staggering, stumbling, wéakness or partial paraIysis, complete paralysis.[4]
Change in pores and skin (redness, scabs, or scratching)
Change in behavior (such as for example decreased or incréased activity level, séizure or aggression).[5]
Ramifications of overdose include ulcer and gastritis formation.[6]

In healthy canines given carprofen, simply no perioperative undesireable effects on the heart have already been reported at suggested dosages.[7] [8] Perioperative administration of carprofen to cats didn’t effect postoperative respiratory price nor heartrate.[9]

Carprofen shouldn’t be administered with steroids concurrently, as this can trigger ulcers in the tummy. Dogs should be removed carprofen for three complete times before ingesting a steroid (such as for example prednisolone). Carprofen shouldn’t be given simultaneously with other styles of medicines such as additional NSAIDs (aspirin, etodoIac, deracoxib, meloxicam, tepoxaIin) or steroids such as for example dexamethasone, triamcinolone, prednisone or cortisone.

Carprofen can be used with caution within the guidance of a veterinarian in canines with liver or kidney disease, dehydration, bleeding déficits, or other health issues. It isn’t recommended for make use of in canines with bleeding disorders (such as for example Von WiIlebrand’s disease), ás safety is not established in canines with these disorders.[10] It has not been established whether carprofen can be utilized in pregnant dogs safely, dogs utilized for breeding purposés, or in Iactating feminine dogs.

Several laboratory research and medical trials have already been conducted to determine the safety óf using Carprofen. Clinical studies were conducted in almost 300 dogs, via different breeds. The canines had been treated with RimadyI at the suggested dose for 14 days. Regarding to these scholarly studies, the medication was clinically weIl tolerated and thé treated canines did not have a larger incidence of effects in comparison with the control group.[11]

Several factors that may donate to the high incidénce of adverse reviews received for carprofen by the guts for Veterinary Medication in the late 1990s. Included in these are:

The kind of drug;
Wide use;
Duration of use. As the unwanted effects from carprofen are recognized to occur within a brief time period after administration, it really is thought that long-term use could possibly lead to an increased risk for advérse reactions[citation néeded];
Senior dog use. Old dogs are more susceptible to side effects due to carprofen generally.
Human use[edit]
Carprofen was found in humans for a decade almost, starting in 1988. It had been utilized for the same circumstances as in canines, viz., joint inflammation and pain. Unwanted effects tended to become mild, usually comprising nausea or gastro-intestinal discomfort and diarrhea. Carprofen was available just by préscription in 150 to 600 mg dosages.[12] Dosage over 250 mg was limited to relieving pain after serious trauma, such as for example post-surgery infIammation. 150 mg doses were typically used to alleviate the discomfort of arthritis, whiIe 200 mg doses were typically recommended in cases of serious arthritis or serious inflammation pain. The medication orally was taken. Pfizer voluntarily taken out it from the marketplace for human make use of on commercial grounds.[12]

Equine use[edit]
Carprofen could be administered intravenously to horses.[13] An individual dose has been proven to lessen prostaglandin E2 creation and inflammatory exudate for 15 hours,[14] although there is less influence on eicosanoid production in comparison with the effects made by NSAIDs such as for example phenylbutazone or fIunixin.[15] Prostaglandin E2 and inflammatory exudate are also reduced and leukotriene B4 is inhibited. Carprofen may also be given orally, but intramuscular use may make muscle damage.[16]

Brands and dosagé forms for véterinary make use of[edit]
It really is marketed under many brands including: Acticarp, Austiofén, Bomazeal, Canidryl, CarporaI, Carprieve , Carprocow, CarprodoIor, Carprodyl, Carprofelican, Carprofén, Carprofène, Carproféno, Carprofenum, Carprogesic, CarprosoI, Carprotab, Carprox, Cómforion, Dolagis, Dolocarp, DoIox, Eurofen, Kelaprofen, Librévia, Norocarp, Norodyl, Nóvocox, Prolet, Reproval, RimadyI, Rimifin, Rofeniflex, Rycárfa, Scanodyl, Tergive, Vétprofen, and Xelcor.[1]

Veterinary dosage fórms include 25 mg, 75 mg, and 100 mg tablets, and 50 mg per mL injectable form.[17]

References[edit]
^ a b Drugs.october 4 com International brands for Carprofen Web page accessed, 2017
^ a b c Carprofen/Rimadyl (Carprofen) prescribing instructions
^ “Update On RimadyI, FDA’s Middle for Veterinary Medication, December 1, 1999”.
^ “AN ASSESSMENT of Symptoms of a Possibly Life-threatening A reaction to Rimadyl”. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
^ “Dog Owner INFORMATION REGARDING Rimadyl (carprofen)”. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
^ “Generic Pet Rimadyl Online”. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
^ Boström, lM; Nyman, GC; Lórd, PE; Häggström, J; Jones, BE; BohIin, HP (Might 2002). “Ramifications of carprofen on renaI function and outcomes of serum biochemical and hematologic analyses in anesthetized canines that experienced low blood circulation pressure during anesthesia”. Américan journal of véterinary study. 63 (5): 712-21. doi:10.2460/ajvr.2002.63.712. PMID 12013473.
^ Frendin, JH; Bóström, IM; Kámpa, N; EkseIl, P; Häggström, JU; Nymán, GC (December 2006). “Ramifications of carprofen on renaI function during médetomidine-propofol-isoflurane anésthesia in canines”. American journal of veterinary study. 67 (12): 1967-73. doi:10.2460/ajvr.67.12.1967. PMID 17144795.
^ Höglund, 0dd V; Dyall, Bárbara; Gräsman, Victória; Edner, Anna; 0lsson, Ulf; HögIund, Katja (22 November 2017). “Aftereffect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines on postoperative respiratory and heartrate in cats put through ovariohysterectomy”. Journal of Feline Medication and Surgery: 1098612X1774229. doi:10.1177/1098612X17742290.
^ “Rimadyl (Carprofen)”. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
^ “Rimadyl [package insert]. NY, NY: Pfizer Animal Wellness, 2007” (PDF). Retrieved 2014-08-13.
^ a b Committée for Veterinary MedicinaI Items: Carprofen, European Company for the EvaIuation of Medicinal Próducts
^ McIlwraith CW, Frisbié DD, Káwcak CE. NonsteroidaI Anti-Inflammatory Medicines. Proc. AAEP 2001 (47): 182-187.
^ Lees, P; McKellar, Q; Might, SA; Ludwig, B (Might 1994). “Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of carprofen in the equine”. Equine veterinary journaI. 26 (3): 203-8. doi:10.1111/j.2042-3306.1994.tb04370.x. PMID 8542839.
^ Lees, P; Ewins, CP; Taylor, JB; Sedgwick, Advertisement (1987). “Serum thromboxane in the equine and its own inhibition by aspirin, phenylbutazone and flunixin”. The British veterinary journal. 143 (5): 462-76. doi:10.1016/0007-1935(87)90024-8. PMID 3119142.
^ McKellar, QA; Bógan, JA; von FeIlenberg, RL; Ludwig, B; CawIey, GD (July 1991). “Pharmacokinetic, biochemical and tolerance research on carprofen in the equine”. Equine veterinary journaI. 23 (4): 280-4. doi:10.1111/j.2042-3306.1991.tb03718.x. PMID 1915228.
^ Carprofen (Veterinary-Systemic) AMERICA Pharmacopeial Convention, 2007

EP (E2)

FP (F2α)

Agonists: Alfaprostol
Bimatoprost
Carboprost
Cloprostenol
Enprostil
Fluprostenol
Latanoprost
Prostaglandin D2
Prostaglandin F2α (dinoprost)
Sulotroban
Tafluprost
Travoprost
Unoprostone
IP (I2)

Agonists: ACT-333679
AFP-07
Beraprost
BMY-45778
Carbacyclin
Cicaprost
Iloprost (ciloprost)
Isocarbacyclin
MRE-269
NS-304
Prostacyclin (prostaglandin We2, epoprostenol)
Prostaglandin E1 (alprostadil)
Ralinepag
Selexipag
Taprostene
TRA-418
Treprostinil
Antagonists: RO1138452
TP (TXA2)

Agonists: Carbocyclic thromboxane A2
I-BOP
Thromboxane A2
U-46619
Vapiprost
Antagonists: 12-HETE
13-APA
AA-2414
Argatroban
Bay U3405
BMS-180,291
Daltroban
Domitroban
EP-045
GR-32191
ICI-185282
ICI-192605
Ifetroban
Imitrodast
L-655240
L-670596
Linotroban
Mipitroban
ONO-3708
ONO-11120
Picotamide
Pinane thromboxane A2
Ramatroban
Ridogrel
S-145
Samixogrel
Seratrodast
SQ-28,668
SQ-29,548
Sulotroban
Terbogrel
Terutroban
TRA-418
Unsorted

Arbaprostil
Ataprost
Ciprostene
Clinprost
Cobiprostone
Delprostenate
Deprostil
Dimoxaprost
Doxaprost
Ecraprost
Eganoprost
Enisoprost
Eptaloprost
Esuberaprost
Etiproston
Fenprostalene
Flunoprost
Froxiprost
Lanproston
Limaprost
Luprostiol
Meteneprost
Mexiprostil
Naxaprostene
Nileprost
Nocloprost
Ornoprostil
Oxoprostol
Penprostene
Pimilprost
Piriprost
Posaraprost
Prostalene
Rioprostil
Rivenprost
Rosaprostol
Spiriprostil
Tiaprost
Tilsuprost
Tiprostanide
Trimoprostil
Viprostol
Enzyme
(inhibitors)

Others

Precursors: Linoleic acid
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid)
Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid
Diacylglycerol
Arachidonic acid
Prostaglandin G2javascript:;
Prostaglandin H2
See also
Receptor/signaling modulators
Leukotriene signaling modulators
Nuclear receptor modulators

Supply: https://en.wikipédia.org/wiki/Carprofén

Bullous pemphigoid

Bullous pemphigoid is an acute or chronic autoimmune skin disease, involving the formation of blisters, more appropriately known as bullae, at the space between the epidermis and dermis skin layers. It is classified as a type II hypersensitivity reaction, with the formation of anti-hemidesmosome antibodies.

Contents

  • 1 Signs and symptoms
  • 2 Causes
  • 3 Pathophysiology
  • 4 Diagnosis
  • 5 Treatment
  • 6 Prognosis
  • 7 Epidemiology
  • 8 Research
  • 9 See also
  • 10 References
  • 11 Further reading
  • 12 External links

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Clinically, the earliest lesions may appear urticarial (like hives), but could also appear dermatitic, targetoid, lichenoid, nodular, or even without visible rash (essential pruritus)[1]. Tense bullae eventually erupt, most commonly at the inner thighs and upper arms, but the trunk and extremities are frequently both involved. Any part of the skin surface can be involved. Oral lesions are present in a minority of cases.[2] The disease may be acute, but typically will wax and wane. Several other skin diseases may have similar symptoms. However, milia are more common with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, because of the deeper antigenic targets. A more ring-like configuration, with a central depression or centrally collapsed bullae may indicate linear IgA disease. Nikolsky’s sign is negative unlike pemphigus vulgaris where it is positive.

Causes[edit]

In most cases of bullous pemphigoid, no clear precipitating factors are identified.[2] Potential precipitating events that have been reported include exposure to ultraviolet light and radiation therapy.[2][3] Onset of bullous pemphigoid has also been associated with certain drugs, including furosemide, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, DPP-4 inhibitors, captopril, penicillamine, and antibiotics.[3]

Pathophysiology[edit]

The bullae are formed by an immune reaction, initiated by the formation of IgG[4] autoantibodies targeting Dystonin, also called Bullous Pemphigoid Antigen 1,[5] and/or type XVII collagen, also called Bullous Pemphigoid Antigen 2,[6] which is a component of hemidesmosomes. A different form of dystonin is associated with neuropathy.[5] Following antibody targeting, a cascade of immunomodulators results in a variable surge of immune cells, including neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils coming to the affected area. Unclear events subsequently result in a separation along the dermoepidermal junction and eventually stretch bullae.

Diagnosis[edit]

A photo of legs covered in popped blisters caused by bullous pempigoid. The blisters cover his entire body, but subject preferred to stay clothed.

Diagnosis is based on two biopsies of the skin, one submitted for routine H&E staining and one for immunofluorescence studies.

Treatment[edit]

Treatments include class I topical steroids (clobetasol, halobetasol, etc.) which in some studies have proven to be equally effective as systemic, or pill, therapy and somewhat safer.[2] However, in difficult-to-manage or widespread cases, systemic prednisone and powerful steroid-free immunosuppressant medications, such as methotrexate, azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil, may be appropriate.[2][7] Some of these medications have the potential for severe adverse effects such as kidney and liver damage, increased susceptibility to infections, and bone marrow suppression.[8] Antibiotics such as tetracycline or erythromycin may also control the disease, particularly in patients who cannot use corticosteroids.[7] The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab has been found to be effective in treating some otherwise refractory cases of bullous pemphigoid.[citation needed] A 2010 meta-analysis of 10 randomized controlled trials showed that oral steroids and potent topical steroids are effective treatments though their use may be limited by side-effects, while lower doses of topical steroids are safe and effective for treatment of moderate bullous pemphigoid.[8]

IgA-mediated pemphigoid can often be difficult to treat even with usually effective medications such as rituximab.[9]

Prognosis[edit]

Bullous pemphigoid may be self-resolving in a period ranging from several months to many years even without treatment.[2] Poor general health related to old age is associated with a poorer prognosis.[2]

Epidemiology[edit]

Very rarely seen in children, bullous pemphigoid most commonly occurs in people 70 years of age and older.[2] Estimated frequency is seven to 14 cases per million per year, but has been reported to be as high as 472 cases per million per year in Scottish men older than 85.[2] At least one study indicates the incidence might be increasing in the United Kingdom.[10] Some sources report it affects men twice as frequently as women,[7] while others report no difference between the sexes.[2]

Many mammals can be afflicted, including dogs, cats, pigs, and horses, as well as humans. It is very rare in dogs; on average, three cases are diagnosed around the world each year.[citation needed]

Research[edit]

Animal models of bullous pemphigoid have been developed using transgenic techniques to produce mice lacking the genes for the two known autoantigens, dystonin and collagen XVII.[5][6]

See also[edit]

  • Cicatricial pemphigoid
  • Dystonin
  • Gestational pemphigoid
  • List of target antigens in pemphigoid
  • List of immunofluorescence findings for autoimmune bullous conditions

References[edit]

  • ^ Cozzani, Emanuele, et al. “Atypical presentations of bullous pemphigoid: Clinical and immunopathological aspects.” Autoimmunity reviews 14.5 (2015): 438-445.
  • ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wolff K, Goldsmith L, Gilchrest B, Stephen Katz, Amy Paller, David Leffell (17 October 2007). “Chapter 54. Bullous Pemphigoid”. In Wolff K, Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, Gilchrest BA, Paller AS, Leffell DJ. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology In General Medicine, Two Volumes (7th ed.). Mcgraw-hill. ISBN 978-0-07-146690-5. Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  • ^ a b Lawrence S. Chan (2011). “Bullous Pemphigoid”. eMedicine Reference. 
  • ^ “Dorlands Medical Dictionary:bullous pemphigoid”. Retrieved 2010-06-24. 
  • ^ a b c “OMIM Entry – *113810 – DYSTONIN; DST”. [permanent dead link]
  • ^ a b “OMIM Entry – *113811 – COLLAGEN, TYPE XVII, ALPHA-1; COL17A1”. [permanent dead link]
  • ^ a b c “”Bullous Pemphigoid.” Quick Answers to Medical Diagnosis and Therapy”. Retrieved 2012-07-21. 
  • ^ a b Kirtschig, Gudula; Middleton, Philippa; Bennett, Cathy; Murrell, Dedee F; Wojnarowska, Fenella; Khumalo, Nonhlanhla P (2010-10-06). “Interventions for bullous pemphigoid”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002292.pub3. ISSN 1465-1858. 
  • ^ He Y, Shimoda M, Ono Y, Villalobos IB, Mitra A, Konia T, Grando SA, Zone JJ, Maverakis E (2015). “Persistence of Autoreactive IgA-Secreting B Cells Despite Multiple Immunosuppressive Medications Including Rituximab”. JAMA Dermatol. 151 (6): 646–50. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.59. PMID 25901938. 
  • ^ Langan SM, Smeeth L, Hubbard R, Fleming KM, Smith CJ, West J (2008). “Bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris–incidence and mortality in the UK: population based cohort study”. BMJ. 337: a180. doi:10.1136/bmj.a180. PMC 2483869 . PMID 18614511. 
  • Further reading[edit]

    • Wojnarowska, F; Kirtschig, G; Highet, AS; Venning, VA; Khumalo, NP; British Association of, Dermatologists (Aug 2002). “Guidelines for the management of bullous pemphigoid”. The British Journal of Dermatology. 147 (2): 214–21. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2002.04835.x. PMID 12174090. 

    External links[edit]

    Rashes

    Without
    epidermal
    involvement

    Nonblanchable
    Purpura

    Indurated

    • scleroderma/morphea
    • granuloma annulare
    • lichen sclerosis et atrophicus
    • necrobiosis lipoidica

    Miscellaneous
    disorders

    Other

    • Transient acantholytic dermatosis

    Pemphigoid
    (dermis)

    Other bullous

    • Dermatitis herpetiformis

    In diseases
    classified elsewhere

    • Porphyria cutanea tarda
    • Bullous lupus erythematosus
    • PUVA-induced acrobullous dermatosis

    Type II/ADCC

      • IgM
      • IgG

    Type III
    (Immune complex)

    Type IV/cell-mediated
    (T cells)

    Unknown/
    multiple

    Laminin

    • Junctional epidermolysis bullosa
    • Laryngoonychocutaneous syndrome

    Other

    • Congenital stromal corneal dystrophy
    • Raine syndrome
    • Urbach–Wiethe disease
    • TECTA
      • DFNA8/12, DFNB21

    see also fibrous proteins


    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bullous_pemphigoid

    Lily Update- “And there is only one thing we say to Death- Not Today!”

    Lily Update- “And there is only one thing we say to Death- Not Today!”

    Got to the vet at noon as planned, and immediately went into a consultation room to wait for Dr. Dickinson, because today was a big day from a blood test numbers standpoint. Dr. Dickinson (who I already told you is just AMAZING and whom I am so clearly in lov…

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    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is cancer of the lymph tissue. Lymph tissue is found in the lymph nodes, spleen, and other organs of the immune system. White blood cells called lymphocytes are found in lymph tissue. They help prevent infections. Most l…

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    Amlodipine

    Amlodipine, sold under the brand name Norvasc among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and coronary artery disease.[3] While not typically recommended in heart failure, amlodipine may be used if other medications are not sufficient for high blood pressure or heart-related chest pain.[4] Amlodipine is taken by mouth and has an effect for at least a day.[3]

    Common side effects include swelling, feeling tired, abdominal pain, and nausea.[3] Serious side effects may include low blood pressure or a heart attack.[3] Whether use is safe during pregnancy or breastfeeding is unclear.[3] Doses should be decreased in people with liver problems and in elderly individuals.[3] Amlodipine is a long-acting calcium channel blocker of the dihydropyridine (DHP) type.[3] It works partly by increasing the size of arteries.[3]

    Amlodipine was first patented in 1986 with commercial sale beginning in 1990.[5] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] It is available as a generic medication.[3] Wholesale cost in the developing world is US$0.003 to 0.066 per day for a typical dose as of 2015.[7] In the United States, a month’s supply costs less than $25.[8]

    Contents

    • 1 Medical uses
      • 1.1 Combination therapy
    • 2 Contraindications
    • 3 Side effects
    • 4 Overdose
    • 5 Interactions
    • 6 Pharmacology
      • 6.1 Mechanism of action
      • 6.2 Pharmacokinetics
    • 7 History
    • 8 Veterinary use
    • 9 References
    • 10 External links

    Medical uses[edit]

    Amlodipine is used in the management of hypertension[9] and coronary artery disease in people with either stable angina (where chest pain occurs mostly after physical or emotional stress)[10] or vasospastic angina (where it occurs in cycles) and without heart failure. It can be used as either monotherapy or combination therapy for the management of hypertension or coronary artery disease. Amlodipine can be administered to adults and children 6–17 years of age.[2]

    Combination therapy[edit]

    Amlodipine can be given as a combination therapy with a variety of medications:[3][11]

    • Amlodipine/atorvastatin, where amlodipine is given for hypertension or CAD and atorvastatin prevents cardiovascular events, or if the person also has high cholesterol.
    • Amlodipine/aliskiren or amlodipine/aliskiren/hydrochlorothiazide if amlodipine alone cannot reduce blood pressure. Aliskiren is a renin inhibitor, which works to reduce primary hypertension (that with no known cause) by binding to renin and preventing it from initiating the renin–angiotensin system (RAAS) pathway to increase blood pressure. Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic and decreases overall blood volume.
    • Amlodipine/benazepril if either drug has failed individually, or amlodipine alone caused edema. Benazepril is an ACE inhibitor and blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II in the RAAS pathway.
    • Amlodipine/olmesartan or amlodipine/olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide if amlodipine is insufficient in reducing blood pressure. Olmesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and blocks part of the RAAS pathway.
    • Amlodipine/perindopril if using amlodipine alone caused edema. Perindopril is a long-lasting ACE inhibitor.
    • Amlodipine/telmisartan, where telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist.
    • Amlodipine/valsartan or amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide, where valsartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist.

    Contraindications[edit]

    The only absolute contraindication to amlodipine is an allergy to amlodipine or any other dihydropyridines.[12]

    Other situations occur, however, where amlodipine generally should not be used. In patients with cardiogenic shock, where the heart’s ventricles are not able to pump enough blood, calcium channel blockers exacerbate the situation by preventing the flow of calcium ions into cardiac cells, which is required for the heart to pump.[13] While use in patients with aortic stenosis (narrowing of the aorta where it meets the left ventricle) since it does not inhibit the ventricle’s function is generally safe, it can still cause collapse in cases of severe stenosis.[14] In unstable angina (excluding variant angina), amlodipine can cause a reflex increase in cardiac contractility (how hard the ventricles squeeze) and heart rate, which together increase the demand for oxygen by the heart itself.[15] Patients with severe hypotension can have their low blood pressure exacerbated, and patients in heart failure can get pulmonary edema. Those with impaired liver function are unable to metabolize amlodipine to its full extent, giving it a longer half-life.[12][16]

    Amlodipine’s safety in pregnancy has not been established, although reproductive toxicity at high doses is known. Whether amlodipine enters the milk of breastfeeding mothers is also unknown.[12][16]

    Side effects[edit]

    Some common dose-dependent side effects of amolodipine include vasodilatory effects, peripheral edema, dizziness, palpitations, and flushing.[12][17] Peripheral edema (fluid accumulation in the tissues) occurs at rate of 10.8% at a 10-mg dose (versus 0.6% for placebos), and is three times more likely in women than in men.[2] It causes more dilation in the arterioles and precapillary vessels than the postcapillary vessels and venules. The increased dilation allows for more blood, which is unable to push through to the relatively constricted postcapillary venules and vessels; the pressure causes much of the plasma to move into the interstitial space.[18] Amlodipine-association edema can be avoided by adding ACE inhibitors or angiontensin II receptor antagonist.[3] Of the other dose-dependent side effects, palpitations (4.5% at 10 mg vs. 0.6% in placebos) and flushing (2.6% vs. 0%) occurred more often in women; dizziness (3.4% vs. 1.5%) had no sex bias.[2][12]

    Common but not dose-related side effects are fatigue (4.5% vs. 2.8% with a placebo), nausea (2.9% vs. 1.9%), abdominal pain (1.6% vs. 0.3%), and somnolence (1.4% vs. 0.6%).[12] Side effects occurring less than 1% of the time include: blood disorders, impotence, depression, peripheral neuropathy, insomnia, tachycardia, gingival enlargement, hepatitis, and jaundice.[12][19][20]

    Overdose[edit]

    See also: Calcium channel blocker toxicity

    Although rare,[21] amlodipine overdose toxicity can result in widening of blood vessels, severe low blood pressure, and fast heart rate.[22] Toxicity is generally managed with fluid replacement[23] monitoring ECG results, vital signs, respiratory system function, glucose levels, kidney function, electrolyte levels, and urine output.Vasopressors are also administered when low blood pressure is not alleviated by fluid resuscitation.[2][22]

    Interactions[edit]

    Several drugs interact with amlodipine to increase its levels in the body. CYP3A inhibitors, by nature of inhibiting the enzyme that metabolizes amlodipine, CYP3A4, are one such class of drugs. Others include the calcium-channel blocker diltiazem, the antibiotic clarithromycin, and possibly some antifungals.[2] Amlodipine causes several drugs to increase in levels, including cyclosporine, simvastatin, and tacrolimus (the increase in the last one being more likely in people with CYP3A5*3 genetic polymorphisms).[24] When more than 20 mg of simvastatin, a lipid-lowering agent, are given with amlodipine, the risk of myopathy increases.[25] Giving amlodipine with Viagra increases the risk of hypotension.[2][3]

    Pharmacology[edit]

    Mechanism of action[edit]

    Amlodipine is an angioselective calcium channel blocker and inhibits the movement of calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac muscle cells which inhibits the contraction of cardiac muscle and vascular smooth muscle cells. Amlodipine inhibits calcium ion influx across cell membranes, with a greater effect on vascular smooth muscle cells. This causes vasodilation and a reduction peripheral vascular resistance, thus lowering blood pressure. Its effects on cardiac muscle also prevent excessive constriction in the coronary arteries.[3]

    Negative inotropic effects can be detected in vitro, but such effects have not been seen in intact animals at therapeutic doses. Among the two stereoisomers [R(+), S(–)], the (–) isomer has been reported to be more active than the (+) isomer.[26] Serum calcium concentration is not affected by amlodipine. And it specifically inhibits the currents of L-type Cav1.3 channels in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland.[27][28]

    The mechanisms by which amlodipine relieves angina are:

    • Stable angina: amlodipine reduces the total peripheral resistance (afterload) against which the heart works and reduces the rate pressure product, thereby lowering myocardial oxygen demand, at any given level of exercise.[29]
    • Variant angina: amlodipine blocks spasm of the coronary arteries and restores blood flow in coronary arteries and arterioles in response to calcium, potassium, epinephrine, serotonin, and thromboxane A2 analog in experimental animal models and in human coronary vessels in vitro.[30]

    Amlodipine has additionally been found to act as an antagonist of the mineralocorticoid receptor, or as an antimineralocorticoid.[31]

    Pharmacokinetics[edit]

    Amlodipine and one of its major metabolites: The nitrogen-containing ring is oxidized, and two of the side chains are hydrolyzed.[32]

    Amlodipine has been studied in healthy volunteers following oral administration of 14C-labelled drug.[33] Amlodipine is well absorbed by the oral route with a mean oral bioavailability around 60%; the half-life of amlodipine is about 30 h to 50 h, and steady-state plasma concentrations are achieved after 7 to 8 days of daily dosing. Its long half-life and high bioavailability are largely in part of its high pKa (8.6); it is ionized at physiological pH, and thus can strongly attract proteins.[2] It is slowly metabolized in the liver by CYP3A4, with its amine group being oxidized and its side ester chain being hydrolyzed, resulting in an inactive pyridine metabolite.[34] Renal elimination is the major route of excretion with about 60% of an administered dose recovered in urine, largely as inactive pyridine metabolites. However, renal impairment does not significantly influence amlodipine elimination.[35]

    History[edit]

    Pfizer’s patent protection on Norvasc lasted until 2007; total patent expiration occurred later in 2007.[36] A number of generic versions are available. In the United Kingdom, tablets of amlodipine from different suppliers may contain different salts. The strength of the tablets is expressed in terms of amlodipine base, i.e., without the salts. Tablets containing different salts are therefore considered interchangeable. The efficacy and tolerability of a fixed-dose combination of amlodipine and perindopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, have recently been confirmed in a prospective, observational, multicentre trial of 1250 hypertensive patients.[37]

    The medical form comes as besylate, mesylate or maleate.[38]

    Veterinary use[edit]

    Amlodipine is most often used to treat systemic hypertension in cats and dogs.[39] In cats, it is the first line of treatment due to its efficacy and few side effects.[40] Systemic hypertension in cats is usually secondary to another abnormality, such as chronic kidney disease, and so amlodipine is most often administered to cats with kidney disease.[41] While amlodipine is used in dogs with systemic hypertension, it is not as efficacious. Amlodipine is also used to treat congestive heart failure due to mitral valve regurgitation in dogs.[42] By decreasing resistance to forward flow in the systemic circulation it results in a decrease in regurgitant flow into the left atrium.[43] Similarly, it can be used on dogs and cats with left-to-right shunting lesions such as ventricular septal defect to reduce the shunt. Side effects are rare in cats. In dogs, the primary side effect is gingival hyperplasia.[44]

    References[edit]

  • ^ “Medical Definition of AMLODIPINE”. www.merriam-webster.com. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2017. 
  • ^ a b c d e f g h “Norvasc Prescribing Information” (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2017. 
  • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m “Amlodipine Besylate”. Drugs.com. American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
  • ^ The ESC Textbook of Preventive Cardiology: Clinical Practice. Oxford University Press. 2015. p. 261. ISBN 9780199656653. 
  • ^ Chorghade, Mukund S. (2006). Drug Discovery and Development. 1. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. p. 207. ISBN 9780471780090. Archived from the original on 15 August 2016. 
  • ^ “WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)” (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  • ^ “Amlodipine”. International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Archived from the original on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2016. 
  • ^ Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia (Deluxe Lab-Coat ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 154. ISBN 9781284057560. 
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  • External links[edit]

    • U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal – Amlodipine

    Potassium

    IRKs

    KCa

    K2Ps

    Sodium

    ENaC

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    Chloride

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    Unsorted

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    See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Transient receptor potential channel modulators

    See also
    Receptor/signaling modulators
    Mineralocorticoids and antimineralocorticoids
    Glucocorticoid receptor modulators
    List of corticosteroids

    • Pharmacy and pharmacology portal
    • Medicine portal


    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amlodipine

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