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0 6.2 Post-Marketing Experiences The following adverse reactions have been identified from clinical trials and/or post-marketing surveillance. Because they are reported from a population of unknown size, precise estimates of frequency cannot be made.
Body as a whole : diffuse pain, chest pain, radiation recall phenomenon.
Cardiovascular : atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, ECG abnormalities, thrombophlebitis, pulmonary embolism, syncope, tachycardia, myocardial infarction.
Cutaneous : very rare cases of cutaneous lupus erythematosus and rare cases of bullous eruptions such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and Scleroderma-like changes usually preceded by peripheral lymphedema. In some cases multiple factors may have contributed to the development of these effects. Severe hand and foot syndrome has been reported. Cases of permanent alopecia have been reported.
Gastrointestinal : abdominal pain, anorexia, constipation, duodenal ulcer, esophagitis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gastrointestinal perforation, ischemic colitis, colitis, intestinal obstruction, ileus, neutropenic enterocolitis and dehydration as a consequence to gastrointestinal events have been reported.
Hematologic : bleeding episodes. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), often in association with sepsis or multiorgan failure, has been reported. Cases of acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplasic syndrome have been reported in association with TAXOTERE when used in combination with other chemotherapy agents and/or radiotherapy.
Hypersensitivity : rare cases of anaphylactic shock have been reported. Very rarely these cases resulted in a fatal outcome in patients who received premedication.
Hepatic : rare cases of hepatitis, sometimes fatal primarily in patients with pre-existing liver disorders, have been reported.
Neurologic : confusion, rare cases of seizures or transient loss of consciousness have been observed, sometimes appearing during the infusion of the drug.
Ophthalmologic : conjunctivitis, lacrimation or lacrimation with or without conjunctivitis. Excessive tearing which may be attributable to lacrimal duct obstruction has been reported. Rare cases of transient visual disturbances (flashes, flashing lights, scotomata) typically occurring during drug infusion and in association with hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. These were reversible upon discontinuation of the infusion. Cases of cystoid macular edema (CME) have been reported in patients treated with TAXOTERE.
Hearing : rare cases of ototoxicity, hearing disorders and/or hearing loss have been reported, including cases associated with other ototoxic drugs.
Respiratory : dyspnea, acute pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome/pneumonitis, interstitial lung disease, interstitial pneumonia, respiratory failure, and pulmonary fibrosis have rarely been reported and may be associated with fatal outcome. Rare cases of radiation pneumonitis have been reported in patients receiving concomitant radiotherapy.
Renal : renal insufficiency and renal failure have been reported, the majority of these cases were associated with concomitant nephrotoxic drugs.
Metabolism and nutrition disorders : cases of hyponatremia have been reported. BACK TO TOP 7. DRUG INTERACTIONS Docetaxel is a CYP3A4 substrate. In vitro studies have shown that the metabolism of docetaxel may be modified by the concomitant administration of compounds that induce, inhibit, or are metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4.
In vivo studies showed that the exposure of docetaxel increased 2.2-fold when it was coadministered with ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Protease inhibitors, particularly ritonavir, may increase the exposure of docetaxel. Concomitant use of TAXOTERE and drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 may increase exposure to docetaxel and should be avoided. In patients receiving treatment with TAXOTERE, close monitoring for toxicity and a TAXOTERE dose reduction could be considered if systemic administration of a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided [see Dosage and Administration (2.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . 8. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category D [see ‘ Warnings and Precautions ‘ section ]
Based on its mechanism of action and findings in animals, TAXOTERE can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. If TAXOTERE is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while receiving this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant during therapy with TAXOTERE.
TAXOTERE can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Studies in both rats and rabbits at doses ≥0.3 and 0.03 mg/kg/day, respectively (about 1/50 and 1/300 the daily maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m 2 basis), administered during the period of organogenesis, have shown that TAXOTERE is embryotoxic and fetotoxic (characterized by intrauterine mortality, increased resorption, reduced fetal weight, and fetal ossification delay). The doses indicated above also caused maternal toxicity. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether docetaxel is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from TAXOTERE, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. 8.4 Pediatric Use The alcohol content of TAXOTERE Injection should be taken into account when given to pediatric patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11) ] .
The efficacy of TAXOTERE in pediatric patients as monotherapy or in combination has not been established. The overall safety profile of TAXOTERE in pediatric patients receiving monotherapy or TCF was consistent with the known safety profile in adults.
TAXOTERE has been studied in a total of 289 pediatric patients: 239 in 2 trials with monotherapy and 50 in combination treatment with cisplatin and 5-fluoruracil (TCF). TAXOTERE Monotherapy
TAXOTERE monotherapy was evaluated in a dose-finding phase 1 trial in 61 pediatric patients (median age 12.5 years, range 1–22 years) with a variety of refractory solid tumors. The recommended dose was 125 mg/m 2 as a 1-hour intravenous infusion every 21 days. The primary dose limiting toxicity was neutropenia.
The recommended dose for TAXOTERE monotherapy was evaluated in a phase 2 single-arm trial in 178 pediatric patients (median age 12 years, range 1–26 years) with a variety of recurrent/refractory solid tumors. Efficacy was not established with tumor response rates ranging from one complete response (CR) (0.6%) in a patient with undifferentiated sarcoma to four partial responses (2.2%) seen in one patient each with Ewing Sarcoma, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. TAXOTERE in Combination
TAXOTERE was studied in combination with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TCF) versus cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (CF) for the induction treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in pediatric patients prior to chemoradiation consolidation. Seventy-five patients (median age 16 years, range 9 to 21 years) were randomized (2:1) to TAXOTERE (75 mg/m 2 ) in combination with cisplatin (75 mg/m 2 ) and 5-fluorouracil (750 mg/m 2 ) (TCF) or to cisplatin (80 mg/m 2 ) and 5-fluorouracil (1000 mg/m 2 /day) (CF). The primary endpoint was the CR rate following induction treatment of NPC. One patient out of 50 in the TCF group (2%) had a complete response while none of the 25 patients in the CF group had a complete response. Pharmacokinetics:
Pharmacokinetic parameters for docetaxel were determined in 2 pediatric solid tumor trials. Following docetaxel administration at 55 mg/m 2 to 235 mg/m 2 in a 1-hour intravenous infusion every 3 weeks in 25 patients aged 1 to 20 years (median 11 years), docetaxel clearance was 17.3±10.9 L/h/m 2 .
Docetaxel was administered in combination with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TCF), at dose levels of 75 mg/m 2 in a 1-hour intravenous infusion day 1 in 28 patients aged 10 to 21 years (median 16 years, 17 patients were older than 16). Docetaxel clearance was 17.9±8.75 L/h/m 2 , corresponding to an AUC of 4.20±2.57 μg.h/mL.
In summary, the body surface area adjusted clearance of docetaxel monotherapy and TCF combination in children were comparable to those in adults [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . 8.5 Geriatric Use In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy in elderly patients. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
In a study conducted in chemotherapy-naïve patients with NSCLC (TAX326), 148 patients (36%) in the TAXOTERE+cisplatin group were 65 years of age or greater. There were 128 patients (32%) in the vinorelbine+cisplatin group 65 years of age or greater. In the TAXOTERE+cisplatin group, patients less than 65 years of age had a median survival of 10.3 months (95% CI: 9.1 months, 11.8 months) and patients 65 years or older had a median survival of 12.1 months (95% CI: 9.3 months, 14 months). In patients 65 years of age or greater treated with TAXOTERE+cisplatin, diarrhea (55%), peripheral edema (39%) and stomatitis (28%) were observed more frequently than in the vinorelbine+cisplatin group (diarrhea 24%, peripheral edema 20%, stomatitis 20%). Patients treated with TAXOTERE+cisplatin who were 65 years of age or greater were more likely to experience diarrhea (55%), infections (42%), peripheral edema (39%) and stomatitis (28%) compared to patients less than the age of 65 administered the same treatment (43%, 31%, 31% and 21%, respectively).
When TAXOTERE was combined with carboplatin for the treatment of chemotherapy-naïve, advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma, patients 65 years of age or greater (28%) experienced higher frequency of infection compared to similar patients treated with TAXOTERE+cisplatin, and a higher frequency of diarrhea, infection and peripheral edema than elderly patients treated with vinorelbine+cisplatin. Prostate Cancer
Of the 333 patients treated with TAXOTERE every three weeks plus prednisone in the prostate cancer study (TAX327), 209 patients were 65 years of age or greater and 68 patients were older than 75 years. In patients treated with TAXOTERE every three weeks, the following treatment emergent adverse reactions occurred at rates ≥10% higher in patients 65 years of age or greater compared to younger patients: anemia (71% vs. 59%), infection (37% vs. 24%), nail changes (34% vs. 23%), anorexia (21% vs. 10%), weight loss (15% vs. 5%) respectively. Breast Cancer
In the adjuvant breast cancer trial (TAX316), TAXOTERE in combination with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide was administered to 744 patients of whom 48 (6%) were 65 years of age or greater. The number of elderly patients who received this regimen was not sufficient to determine whether there were differences in safety and efficacy between elderly and younger patients. Gastric Cancer
Among the 221 patients treated with TAXOTERE in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil in the gastric cancer study, 54 were 65 years of age or older and 2 patients were older than 75 years. In this study, the number of patients who were 65 years of age or older was insufficient to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. However, the incidence of serious adverse reactions was higher in the elderly patients compared to younger patients. The incidence of the following adverse reactions (all grades, regardless of relationship): lethargy, stomatitis, diarrhea, dizziness, edema, febrile neutropenia/neutropenic infection occurred at rates ≥10% higher in patients who were 65 years of age or older compared to younger patients. Elderly patients treated with TCF should be closely monitored. Head and Neck Cancer
Among the 174 and 251 patients who received the induction treatment with TAXOTERE in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil (TPF) for SCCHN in the TAX323 and TAX324 studies, 18 (10%) and 32 (13%) of the patients were 65 years of age or older, respectively.
These clinical studies of TAXOTERE in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil in patients with SCCHN did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience with this treatment regimen has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment Patients with bilirubin >ULN should not receive TAXOTERE. Also, patients with AST and/or ALT >1.5 × ULN concomitant with alkaline phosphatase >2.5 × ULN should not receive TAXOTERE [see Boxed Warning , Warnings and Precautions (5.2) , Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] .
The alcohol content of TAXOTERE Injection should be taken into account when given to patients with hepatic impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11) ] . BACK TO TOP 10. OVERDOSAGE There is no known antidote for TAXOTERE overdosage. In case of overdosage, the patient should be kept in a specialized unit where vital functions can be closely monitored. Anticipated complications of overdosage include: bone marrow suppression, peripheral neurotoxicity, and mucositis. Patients should receive therapeutic G-CSF as soon as possible after discovery of overdose. Other appropriate symptomatic measures should be taken, as needed.
In two reports of overdose, one patient received 150 mg/m 2 and the other received 200 mg/m 2 as 1-hour infusions. Both patients experienced severe neutropenia, mild asthenia, cutaneous reactions, and mild paresthesia, and recovered without incident.
In mice, lethality was observed following single intravenous doses that were ≥154 mg/kg (about 4.5 times the human dose of 100 mg/m 2 on a mg/m 2 basis); neurotoxicity associated with paralysis, non-extension of hind limbs, and myelin degeneration was observed in mice at 48 mg/kg (about 1.5 times the human dose of 100 mg/m 2 basis). In male and female rats, lethality was observed at a dose of 20 mg/kg (comparable to the human dose of 100 mg/m 2 on a mg/m 2 basis) and was associated with abnormal mitosis and necrosis of multiple organs. BACK TO TOP 11. DESCRIPTION Docetaxel is an antineoplastic agent belonging to the taxoid family. It is prepared by semisynthesis beginning with a precursor extracted from the renewable needle biomass of yew plants. The chemical name for docetaxel is (2R,3S)-N-carboxy-3-phenylisoserine,N- tert -butyl ester, 13-ester with 5β-20-epoxy-1,2α,4,7β,10β,13α-hexahydroxytax-11-en-9-one 4-acetate 2-benzoate, trihydrate. Docetaxel has the following structural formula:
Docetaxel is a white to almost-white powder with an empirical formula of C 43 H 53 NO 14 • 3H 2 O, and a molecular weight of 861.9. It is highly lipophilic and practically insoluble in water. One-vial TAXOTERE (Injection Concentrate)
TAXOTERE (docetaxel) Injection Concentrate is a sterile, non-pyrogenic, pale yellow to brownish-yellow solution at 20 mg/mL concentration.
Each mL contains 20 mg docetaxel (anhydrous) in 0.54 grams polysorbate 80 and 0.395 grams dehydrated alcohol solution.
TAXOTERE is available in single use vials containing 20 mg (1 mL) or 80 mg (4 mL) docetaxel (anhydrous).
TAXOTERE Injection Concentrate requires NO prior dilution with a diluent and is ready to add to the infusion solution. 12. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 12.1 Mechanism of Action Docetaxel is an antineoplastic agent that acts by disrupting the microtubular network in cells that is essential for mitotic and interphase cellular functions. Docetaxel binds to free tubulin and promotes the assembly of tubulin into stable microtubules while simultaneously inhibiting their disassembly. This leads to the production of microtubule bundles without normal function and to the stabilization of microtubules, which results in the inhibition of mitosis in cells. Docetaxel’s binding to microtubules does not alter the number of protofilaments in the bound microtubules, a feature which differs from most spindle poisons currently in clinical use. 12.3 Human Pharmacokinetics Absorption: The pharmacokinetics of docetaxel have been evaluated in cancer patients after administration of 20 mg/m 2 to 115 mg/m 2 in phase 1 studies. The area under the curve (AUC) was dose proportional following doses of 70 mg/m 2 to 115 mg/m 2 with infusion times of 1 to 2 hours. Docetaxel’s pharmacokinetic profile is consistent with a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model, with half-lives for the α, β, and γ phases of 4 min, 36 min, and 11.1 hr, respectively. Mean total body clearance was 21 L/h/m 2 . Distribution: The initial rapid decline represents distribution to the peripheral compartments and the late (terminal) phase is due, in part, to a relatively slow efflux of docetaxel from the peripheral compartment. Mean steady state volume of distribution was 113 L. In vitro studies showed that docetaxel is about 94% protein bound, mainly to α 1 -acid glycoprotein, albumin, and lipoproteins. In three cancer patients, the in vitro binding to plasma proteins was found to be approximately 97%. Dexamethasone does not affect the protein binding of docetaxel. Metabolism: In vitro drug interaction studies revealed that docetaxel is metabolized by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme, and its metabolism may be modified by the concomitant administration of compounds that induce, inhibit, or are metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 [see Drug Interactions (7) ] . Elimination: A study of 14 C-docetaxel was conducted in three cancer patients. Docetaxel was eliminated in both the urine and feces following oxidative metabolism of the tert -butyl ester group, but fecal excretion was the main elimination route. Within 7 days, urinary and fecal excretion accounted for approximately 6% and 75% of the administered radioactivity, respectively. About 80% of the radioactivity recovered in feces is excreted during the first 48 hours as 1 major and 3 minor metabolites with very small amounts (less than 8%) of unchanged drug. Effect of Age: A population pharmacokinetic analysis was carried out after TAXOTERE treatment of 535 patients dosed at 100 mg/m 2 . Pharmacokinetic parameters estimated by this analysis were very close to those estimated from phase 1 studies. The pharmacokinetics of docetaxel were not influenced by age. Effect of Gender: The population pharmacokinetics analysis described above also indicated that gender did not influence the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel. Hepatic Impairment: The population pharmacokinetic analysis described above indicated that in patients with clinical chemistry data suggestive of mild to moderate liver impairment (AST and/or ALT >1.5 times ULN concomitant with alkaline phosphatase >2.5 times ULN), total body clearance was lowered by an average of 27%, resulting in a 38% increase in systemic exposure (AUC). This average, however, includes a substantial range and there is, at present, no measurement that would allow recommendation for dose adjustment in such patients. Patients with combined abnormalities of transaminase and alkaline phosphatase should not be treated with TAXOTERE. Patients with severe hepatic impairment have not been studied . [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6) ] Effect of Race: Mean total body clearance for Japanese patients dosed at the range of 10 mg/m 2 to 90 mg/m 2 was similar to that of European/American populations dosed at 100 mg/m 2 , suggesting no significant difference in the elimination of docetaxel in the two populations. Effect of Ketoconazole: The effect of ketoconazole (a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel was investigated in 7 cancer patients. Patients were randomized to receive either docetaxel (100 mg/m 2 intravenous) alone or docetaxel (10 mg/m 2 intravenous) in combination with ketoconazole (200 mg orally once daily for 3 days) in a crossover design with a 3-week washout period. The results of this study indicated that the mean dose-normalized AUC of docetaxel was increased 2.2-fold and its clearance was reduced by 49% when docetaxel was co-administration with ketoconazole [see Dosage and Administration (2.7) and Drug-Drug Interactions (7) ] . Effect of Combination Therapies: Dexamethasone: Docetaxel total body clearance was not modified by pretreatment with dexamethasone. Cisplatin: Clearance of docetaxel in combination therapy with cisplatin was similar to that previously observed following monotherapy with docetaxel. The pharmacokinetic profile of cisplatin in combination therapy with docetaxel was similar to that observed with cisplatin alone. Cisplatin and Fluorouracil: The combined administration of docetaxel, cisplatin and fluorouracil in 12 patients with solid tumors had no influence on the pharmacokinetics of each individual drug. Prednisone: A population pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma data from 40 patients with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer indicated that docetaxel systemic clearance in combination with prednisone is similar to that observed following administration of docetaxel alone. Cyclophosphamide and Doxorubicin: A study was conducted in 30 patients with advanced breast cancer to determine the potential for drug-drug-interactions between docetaxel (75 mg/m 2 ), doxorubicin (50 mg/m 2 ), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m 2 ) when administered in combination. The coadministration of docetaxel had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide when the three drugs were given in combination compared to coadministration of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide only. In addition, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide had no effect on docetaxel plasma clearance when the three drugs were given in combination compared to historical data for docetaxel monotherapy.